The Central Nervous System And Its Parts

Tuesday, November 15th 2022. | Sample

The Central Nervous System And Its Parts – The image you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain, the nervous tissue contained in the skull, and the spinal cord, the extension of nervous tissue in the vertebral column. In addition, the nervous tissue that runs from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body (nerves) is also part of the nervous system. We can anatomically divide the nervous system into two main regions: the central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the nerves (Figure 12.1.1). The brain is contained in the cranial cavity of the skull and the spinal cord is contained in the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is located on the periphery, that is, beyond the brain and spinal cord.

Figure 12.1.1 – Central and Peripheral Nervous System: The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord, the PNS includes the nerves.

The Central Nervous System And Its Parts

The Central Nervous System And Its Parts

In addition to the anatomical divisions listed above, the nervous system can also be divided based on its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us (sensory functions, sensations) and generating responses to that information (motor functions, responses) and coordinating the two (integration).

Human Nervous System

. Sensation refers to receiving information about the environment, whether it is happening outside (ie heat from the sun) or inside the body (ie heat from muscle activity). These sensations are known as stimuli (singular = stimulus) and different sensory receptors are responsible for detecting different stimuli. Sensory information travels to the CNS via the nerves of the PNS in the specific division called the afferent (sensory) branch of the PNS. When information emerges from sensitive receptors in the skin, skeletal muscles, or joints, it is transmitted to the CNS with somatic sensory neurons; when information emerges from sensitive receptors in blood vessels or internal organs, it is transmitted to the CNS with visceral sensory neurons.

The nervous system produces a response in effector organs (such as muscles or glands) due to sensory stimuli. The motor (efferent) branch of the PNS carries signals from the CNS to effector organs. When the organ of effect is a skeletal muscle, the neuron that carries the information is called a somatic neuron; when the target organ is cardiac or smooth muscle or glandular tissue, the neuron that carries the information is called an autonomous motor neuron. Voluntary responses are governed by somatic motor neurons, and involuntary responses are governed by autonomic motor neurons, which are discussed in the next section.

. The stimuli that are detected by the sensory structures are communicated to the nervous system where the information is processed. In the CNS, information from certain stimuli is compared or integrated with information from other stimuli or memories of previous stimuli. A motor neuron is then activated to initiate a response from the effector organ. This process during which sensory information is processed and a motor response is generated is called integration (see Figure 12.1.2 below).

Figure 12.1.2 – Nervous System Function: Integration occurs in the CNS where sensory information from the periphery is processed and interpreted. Then, the CNS creates a motor plan that is executed by the efferent branch that works with the effector organs.

The Nervous System

The nervous system can be divided into divisions based on anatomy and physiology. The anatomical divisions are the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CNS is the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is everything else and includes afferent and efferent branches with further subdivisions for somatic, visceral, and autonomic functions. Functionally, the nervous system can be divided into those regions that are responsible for sensations, those that are responsible for integration, and those that are responsible for generating responses.

1. What responses does the nervous system generate when running on a treadmill? Includes an example of each type of tissue that is under the control of the nervous system.

2. When eating, what anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system are involved in the perceptual experience?

The Central Nervous System And Its Parts

Functional division of the efferent branch of the PNS that is responsible for the control of cardiac and smooth muscle, as well as glandular tissue.

Autonomic Nervous System: What It Is, Function & Disorders

The large organ of the central nervous system contained in the skull and continuous with the vertebral column

Anatomical division of the nervous system that extends from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body

Function of the nervous system that causes a target tissue (muscle or gland) to produce an event as a result of stimuli

Function of the nervous system that receives information from the environment and translates it into electrical signals from nervous tissue

Central And Peripheral Nervous System Worksheet

Functional division of the nervous system concerned with conscious perception, voluntary movement, and skeletal muscle reflexes.

Central nervous system organ found in the vertebral cavity and connected to the periphery by spinal nerves; mediate reflex behaviors

Anatomy and Physiology by Lindsay M. Biga, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Devon Quick, and Jon Runyeon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise stated. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are protected by bony structures, membranes, and fluids. The brain is located in the cranial cavity of the skull and is made up of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The nerves involved are the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves.

The Central Nervous System And Its Parts

The nervous system has three main functions: sensory input, data integration, and motor output. Sensory input is when the body collects information or data, via neurons, glia, and synapses. The nervous system is made up of excitable nerve cells (neurons) and synapses that form between neurons and connect them to centers throughout the body or to other neurons. These neurons operate by excitation or inhibition, and although nerve cells can vary in size and location, their communication with one another determines their function. These nerves carry impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. The data is then processed through data integration, which is only found in the brain. Once the brain has processed the information, impulses are conducted from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands, called motor output. Glial cells are found in tissues and are not excitable, but help with myelination, ion regulation, and extracellular fluid.

Central Nervous System Poster

The nervous system is made up of two main parts, or subdivisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the “control center” of the body. The CNS has several centers located within it that carry sense, motor, and data integration. These centers can be divided into Lower Centers (which include the spinal cord and brain stem) and Higher Centers that communicate with the brain through effects.

The PNS is a vast network of spinal and cranial nerves that are connected to the brain and spinal cord. It contains sensitive receptors that help process changes in the internal and external environment. This information is sent to the CNS through afferent sensory nerves. The PNS is then further subdivided into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic has involuntary control of the internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles. The somatic has voluntary control of the skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscles. The two systems work together, through nerves from the PNS entering and becoming part of the CNS, and vice versa.

The central nervous system (CNS) represents the majority of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Together with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), it has a fundamental role in behavior control.

When the central nervous system is damaged or peripheral nerves become trapped, various impacts are possible. It can increase or decrease the functionality of your internal organs, it can also affect your facial expressions i.e. they make you frown a lot, your smile can be blurry, your lungs can be over or under working, lung capacity can increase or decrease , your bladder may be. full, but you won’t be able to urinate, your intestines prolapse and you can’t empty completely with each bowel movement, the muscles in your arms, legs, and torso can become weak and fat, not from lack of use, but from the nerves that run from your spine they cannot function properly, you may suffer from headaches, earaches, sore throats, blocked sinuses. Even your ability to reach orgasm can be affected.

Question Video: Describing The Central Nervous System

The CNS is conceived as a dedicated information processing system, where an appropriate motor output is calculated in response to sensory input. Many lines of research suggest that motor activity exists long before the maturation of sensory systems, and the senses only influence behavior without dictating it. This led to the conception of the CNS as an autonomous system.

Neurons are highly specialized to process and transmit cellular signals. Given the diversity of functions performed by neurons in different parts of the nervous system, there is, unsurprisingly, a wide variety in shape, size,

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