What Are Two Functions Of The Skin

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What Are Two Functions Of The Skin – Human skin is the outermost membrane of the body and the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue that protects muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to the skin of most other mammals and very similar to the skin of pigs. Although almost all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can be hairless. There are two types of normal skin, hairy and glabrous (hairless). The adjective cutaneous literally means “of the skin” (from the Latin cutis, skin).

As it interacts with the virus, the skin plays an important protective role in protecting the body against pathogens and excess water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, satiation, vitamin D synthesis and protection of B vitamin folates. Severely damaged skin will attempt to heal by forming scar tissue. It is often colored and depigmented.

What Are Two Functions Of The Skin

What Are Two Functions Of The Skin

In humans, skin pigmentation (influenced by melanin) varies between populations, and skin type can range from dry to non-dry and from oily to non-oily. Such types of skin provide a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria, which include approximately 1,000 species of 19 phyla, on human skin.

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The skin contains mesodermal cells, pigmentation, such as melanin produced by melanocytes, which absorb some of the harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays in sunlight. It also contains DNA repair enzymes that help reverse UV damage, so people who lack these enzymes have higher rates of skin cancer. One form that is mainly caused by UV light, melanoma is malignant, particularly invasive, causing it to spread quickly, and can often be fatal. Human skin pigmentation varies significantly between nations. This led to the classification of people based on skin color.

In terms of surface area, the skin is the second largest organ in the human body (the interior of the small intestine is 15-20 times larger). For the average adult, the surface area of ​​the skin is 1.5-2.0 square meters (16-22 square feet). The thickness of the skin varies greatly on all parts of the body, and between men and women and young and old. An example is the skin on the shoulder which averages 1.3 mm in males and 1.26 mm in females.

In the skin there are 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes and more than 1,000 nerve endings.

The average human skin cell is about 30 micrometers (μm), but there are variations. A skin cell usually ranges from 25 to 40 µm

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The epidermis, “epi” from the Greek for “top” or “tip”, is the outermost layer of the skin. It forms a waterproof, protective coating on the body surface, which also serves as a barrier to infection and is composed of regular squamous epithelium with a basal lamina.

The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and the cells in the deeper layers are fed almost exclusively by the oxygen diffused from the surrounding air.

And to a much lesser extent through the blood capillaries leading to the outer layers of the dermis. The main type of cells that make up the epidermis are Merkel cells, keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also developing. The epidermis can be further divided into the following layers (starting with the outer layer): corneum, lucidum (only in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet), granulosum, spinosum and basal. Cells are formed by mitosis in the basal layer. Daughter cells (see cell division) die, change shape and composition due to separation from their blood source. The cytoplasm is released and the protein keratin is inserted. They eventually reach the corneum and burn (desquamation). This process is called “keratinization”. This keratinized layer of skin is responsible for retaining water in the body and eliminating harmful chemicals and pathogens, making the skin a natural barrier to infection.

What Are Two Functions Of The Skin

2D projection of a 3D oct-tomogram of the skin at the tip of the finger, showing the thickness of the corneum (~500 μm thick) with discrete thickness on top and stroma lucidum in the middle. Below are the superficial parts of the dermis. The sweat ducts are clearly visible. (See: Rotated 3D version)

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The epidermis does not contain blood vessels and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. The main types of cells that make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkel cells. The epidermis helps the skin to regulate body temperature.

The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and protects the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs.

The epidermis is divided into several layers, where cells are formed by mitosis in the innermost layers. When they separate and become filled with keratin, the layers that change shape and composition move upwards. After reaching the top layer of the corneum, they are finally ‘shed’ or broken off. This process is called keratinization and it takes weeks.

It used to be believed that the stratum corneum was “a simple, biologically inactive outer epidermal layer composed of a fibrillar network of dead keratin.”

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Of course, this is not true, and the stratum corneum must be considered a living tissue.

Although it is true that the stratum corneum is mainly composed of keratinocytes of different sizes called corneocytes that are cut off, the cells remain alive and metabolic until they are destroyed.

Blood capillaries are found under the epidermis and are connected by arterioles and capillaries. Arterial shunt arteries can bypass the network in the ears, nose and fingers.

What Are Two Functions Of The Skin

About 500 genes have a high expression pattern in the skin. There are less than 100 cells that are specific to the skin, and they are expressed in the epidermis.

C: Structure Of The Skin: Dermis

An analysis of the related proteins shows that these are usually expressed in keratinocytes and their functions are related to differentiation and cornification.

The dermis is the layer of skin over the epidermis that is made of connective tissue and protects the body from stress and tension. The dermis is connected to the epidermis by the basal membrane. It also contains many nerve fibers that provide touch and warmth. It includes hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymph vessels and blood vessels. Blood vessels in the dermis provide nutrition and removal of waste from the cells as well as from the underlying stratum corneum.

The dermis is structurally divided into two regions: a superficial region adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deeper region known as the reticular region.

The papillary region consists of smooth areolar connective tissue. It is named for its finger-like projections called papillae, which protrude into the epidermis. The papillae of the dermis provide a “glossy” surface that meets the epidermis, strengthening the bond between the two layers of skin.

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In the hands, fingers, feet and toes, the impact of the papillae on the epidermis creates a line in the surface of the skin. The epidermal ridges occur in patterns (see: fingerprints) that are morphologically and epigenetically defined and are therefore unique to the individual, which makes it possible to use fingerprints or footprints as a means of identification.

The reticular zone is deep within the papillary zone and is usually much thicker. It consists of irregular connective tissue, and derives its name from the collection of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers that run over it. The protein fibers give the dermis its properties of strength, separation and elasticity.

Also in the reticular zone there are hair roots, sebaceous glands, glands, receptors, nails and blood vessels.

What Are Two Functions Of The Skin

Tattoo ink is absorbed into the dermis. Stretch marks, often from pregnancy and obesity, are also present in the dermis.

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The subcutaneous tissue (including the hypodermis and subcutaneous tissue) is not part of the skin, but lies beneath the dermis of the cutis. Its purpose is to connect the skin to the underlying bone and muscle as well as to supply blood vessels and nerves. It consists of connective tissue, fatty tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (subcutaneous cells contain 50% of body fat). Fat acts as a cushion and insulation for the body.

Human skin shows a high range of skin color from the darkest brown to the lightest off-white shades. Human skin shows more color variation than any other mammalian species and is the result of natural selection. Skin pigmentation evolved in humans to primarily regulate the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the skin, controlling its biochemical effects.

The actual skin color of different people is affected by many substances, although the most important substance that determines the color of human skin is the melanin pigment. Melanin is produced in the skin in cells called melanocytes and is the main determinant of skin color in people with darker skin. The skin color of light-skinned people is determined mainly by the white-blue connective tissue under the dermis and by the hemoglobin circulating in the dermis vessels. Red color under the skin, especially in the face, as a result of physical exercise or

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